This page will serve as a bibliography of sorts where we will list Otoe-Missouria language sources. We have a large number of sources that we use and we will be continually adding to this list.
Our sources come from documents, audio and video recordings, and living tribal members. By far the most items listed here will be documents or books. This list is not intended to be a total inventory of our language resources but is intended to be a resource for those studying the Otoe-Missouria language.
Most of the sources here will be listed alphabetically by the creator’s last name. Where possible, we will have these sources available for viewing/listening or download.
Various census records can be viewed here.
Green, Major Albert Lamborn
Major Albert Lamborn Green was the agent to the Otoe-Missourias during the years 1869-1872. Although well-intentioned, Green was instrumental in eradicating the pipe dance.
Hamilton, Rev. William
Rev. William Hamilton (along with Rev. Samuel Irvin) was a missionary at the Ioway and Sac mission during the 1840s. His time there resulted in a number of invaluable books on the Ioway (and by extension, Otoe-Missouria) language.
An Elementary Book of the Ioway Language with an English Translation (1843, co-authored with Rev. Samuel McLeary Irvin)
This is an excellent book that contains vocabulary, kinship terms, prayers, Bible verses, hymns, and more are included in this book. Note that the link for this book connects straight to Google where you can download it.
Original Hymns in the Ioway Language (1843, co-authored with Rev. Samuel McLeary Irvin)
This book actually contains three individual works that are sometimes listed separately. The first portion is the hymns, the next portion is WV-RO-HÆ (translation: “Prayers”), and the third portion is WE-WV-HÆ-KJU (translation: “Questions” or “Catechisms”). None of the sections of this book provide any English translations. However some of the hymns and questions do have counterparts in An Elementary Book of the Ioway Language with an English Translation which have English translations. Note that the link for this book connects straight to Google where you can download it.
An Ioway Grammar Illustrating the Principles of the Language Used by the Ioway, Otoe and Missouri Indians (1848, co-authored with Rev. Samuel McLeary Irvin)
This book is Hamilton and Irvin’s best work. It goes into an incredible amount of detail on grammar, syntax, morphology, etc. Note that the link for this book connects straight to Google where you can download it.
Merrill, Rev. Moses
Rev. Moses Merrill was a missionary to the Otoes and Missourias during the 1830s. His books (especially First Ioway Reading Book) as well as his diary show an incredibly ethnocentric view of Native ways but also his earnest desire to help a “savage” people.
Wdtwhtl Wdwdklha Tva Eva Wdhonetl (1834)
The title of this book, spelled in our current orthography, would be Wadotą Wawagaxe Etawe Yąwe Waxonyitą which roughly translates to its English title of Otoe Hymn Book. This book contains thirteen hymn and no English translations are given. Ten of these hymns are given with English translations in Merrill’s next book (First Ioway Reading Book) along with a pronunciation guide that is not included here. This book is credited with being the first book published in Nebraska.
First Ioway Reading Book (1835)
This book contains ten hymns with English translations along with a handful of lessons. The ten hymns in this book are among the thirteen hymns in Merrill’s previous book Wdtwhtl Wdwdklha Tva Eva Wdhonetl (1834). This book also contains a much-needed pronunciation guide to Merrill’s orthography.
History of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ (1837)
This book contains a large quantity of Bible verses with no English translations. The only English in the book comes from the names of the books from the Bible. Most likely Merrill used a King James Bible so that version can be matched up with Merrill’s work to get an English equivalent. This file can get somewhat hard to read in places.