Pronouns

There are two types of pronouns in Otoe-Missouria.  There are stand-alone pronouns and there are pronoun affixes (prefixes, suffixes, etc.) that must be attached to a verb.  Usually verbs with pronoun affixes attached are enough, however the stand-alone pronouns can be used for emphasis or if the subject changes.

 

STAND-ALONE PRONOUNS

I/me – mį’e
you – ri’e
he/she/it/they – e’e (sometimes shortened to “e”)
we – hį’e

Though technically not pure pronouns, the following are sometimes used as such:

mįnre (mį’e + are) – it is I/it is me
rire (ri’e + are) – it is you

 

AFFIX SUBJECT PRONOUNS FOR VERBS

Examples include “I walk” or “you hit”.

I – ha-/he-
you – ra-/re-/s-
you-all – ra_____wi/re_____wi/s_____wi (the verb goes in the blank)
he/she/it – though it is rare, sometimes “e-” may be used
we (dual) – hį-
we (plural) – hį_____wi (the verb goes in the blank)
they – nye

 

AFFIX OBJECT PRONOUNS FOR VERBS

Examples include “they see us” or “you hit them“.

me – hį-
you – ri-
you-all – ri_____wi (the verb goes in the blank)
him/her/it – unused
us (dual) – wawa-
us (plural) – wawa_____wi (the verb goes in the blank)
them – wa-

 

AFFIX SUBJECT PRONOUNS FOR ADJECTIVE-VERBS

In Otoe-Missouria, adjectives are verbs.

Examples include “I am hungry” and “they are happy”.

I – hį-
you – ri-
you-all – ri_____wi (the verb goes in the blank)
he/she/it – often omitted but sometimes “i-” may be used
we (dual) – wawa-
we (plural) – wawa_____wi (the verb goes in the blank)
they – nye