Numbers

Numbers are adjectives and as such they can also be conjugated in the same way adjectives are.  They can also be expressed in different ways just as in English to not only say one, two, three, etc., but also first, second, third, etc., and once, twice, thrice, etc.

 

Cardinal Numbers (one, two, three, etc.)

Otoe-Missouria numbers go from 1-10 and then a repeatable pattern is used to go beyond this.

 

one – iyąnki (ee-YAHⁿNG-kee)

two – nuwe (NOO-way)

three – danyi (DAH-nyee)

four – dowe (DOH-way)

five – thatą (THAH-tahⁿ)

six – sagwe (SAH-gway)

seven – sahma (SAH-hmah)

eight – grerabrį (gray-RAH-breeⁿ)

nine – sanke (SAHNG-kay)

ten – grebrą (GRAY-brahⁿ)

 

To express zero, use:

zero – ninge (NEENG-ay)

 

To go beyond ten, the term agrį is used which, when used in this context, can be compared to the English “plus”.

 

eleven – grebrą agrį iyąnki (GRAY-brahⁿ ah-GREEⁿ ee-YAHⁿNG-kee)

twelve – grebrą agrį nuwe (GRAY-brahⁿ ah-GREEⁿ NOO-way)

thirteen – grebrą agrį danyi (GRAY-brahⁿ ah-GREEⁿ DAH-nyee)

 

Often these numbers are shortened to simply agrį iyąnki, agrį nuwe, agrį danyi, etc.

 

To express twenty, thirty, forty, etc., use the following:

 

twenty – grebrą nuwe

thirty – grebrą danyi

forty – grebrą dowe

 

To say numbers like 33, 56, and 74, combine the above patterns like this:

 

33 – grebrą danyi agrį danyi

56 – grebrą thatą agrį sagwe

74 – grebrą sahma agrį dowe

 

The term for 100 is grebrą huyą (GRAY-brahⁿ HOO-yahⁿ) and is used in the same way that grebrą is used.

 

100 – grebrą huyą

400 – grebrą huyą dowe

900 – grebrą huyą sanke

 

Using the “tens” uses the same pattern as above:

 

230 – grebrą huyą nuwe agrį grebrą danyi

510 – grebrą huyą thatą agrį grebrą

870 – grebrą huyą grerabrį agrį grebrą sahma

 

To get the numbers between the “tens”, simply add another agrį:

 

342 – grebrą huyą danyi agrį grebrą dowe agrį nuwe

558 – grebrą huyą thatą agrį grebrą thatą agrį grerabrį

999 – grebrą huyą sanke agrį grebrą sanke agrį sanke

 

Venturing into the thousands means we have to introduce a new term.  The modern term for thousand is koge (KOH-gay).  This term also means “box” but it came to mean thousand when payments to the Otoe-Missourias from the U.S. Government came in the form of boxes that contained $1,000 each.  There is an older term for thousand (grebrą huyą xąnje (GRAY-brahⁿ HOO-yahⁿ XAHⁿN-jay) – literally “big one hundred”) but koge is used today.

Just as before, another agrį is used to express the larger number:

3,000 – koge danyi

4,500 – koge dowe agrį grebrą huyą thatą

7,320 – koge sahma agrį grebrą huyą danyi agrį grebrą nuwe

2,896 – koge nuwe agrį grebrą huyą grerabrį agrį grebrą sanke agrį sagwe

 

The numbers can get long and complicated very quickly but once you get used to the system, it will come naturally.

 

Ordinal Numbers (first, second, third, etc.)

You can easily make ordinal numbers out of cardinal numbers by using i-_____ naha (ee-_____ nah-HAH) where the cardinal number goes in the blank.

 

first – iyąnki naha (ee-YAHⁿNG-kee nah-HAH)
(The term for one (iyąnki) already begins with an “i”, so the “i” in “i-_____ naha” merges with it.)

second – inuwe naha (ee-NOO-way nah-HAH)

third – idanyi naha (ee-DAH-nyee nah-HAH)

tenth – igrebrą naha (ee-GRAY-brahⁿ nah-HAH)

eleventh – igrebrą agrį iyąnki naha (ee-GRAY-brahⁿ ah-GREEⁿ ee-YAHⁿNG-kee nah-HAH)

fiftieth – igrebrą thatą naha (ee-GRAY-brahⁿ THAH-tahⁿ nah-HAH)

one-hundredth – igrebrą huyą naha (ee-GRAY-brahⁿ HOO-yahⁿ nah-HAH)

 

There are a few more ways to express ordinal numbers.  These are wi-_____ naha, i-_____ daha, and wi-_____ daha.  Sometimes simply adding i- or wi- to the front of a number is done.  To avoid confusion, only i-_____ naha was used above.

 

Only (only one, only two, only three, etc.)

To express “only” such as only one, only two, only three, etc., add -sdą (sdahⁿ) to the end of a number.

 

only one – iyąnkisdą (ee-YAHⁿNG-kee-sdahⁿ)

only two – nuwesdą (NOO-way-sdahⁿ)

only three – danyisdą (DAH-nyee-sdahⁿ)

only ten – grebrąsdą (GRAY-brahⁿ-sdahⁿ)

 

About (about one, about two, about three, etc.)

To express the idea of “about” with a number such as about one, about two, or about three, add -‘sų (soo) at the end of a number.  This is used in situations where you are unsure of the exact number.  For example, “There are about five cows in the field.”

 

about one – iyąnki’sų (ee-YAHⁿNG-kee’-sooⁿ)

about two – nuwe’sų (NOO-way’-sooⁿ)

about three – danyi’sų (DAH-nyee’-sooⁿ)

about seven – sahma’sų (SAH-hmah’-sooⁿ)

 

Multiplicative Numbers

This group of numbers is done a few different ways.  These are “times”, “fold”, “at a time”, “to each”, and “in each place”.

 

Times (once, twice, thrice, etc.)

To express once, twice, thrice, or one time, two times, three times, etc., add -hą (hahⁿ) to the end of the number.

 

once – iyąnkihą (ee-YAHⁿNG-kee-hahⁿ)

twice – nuwehą (NOO-way-hahⁿ)
Sometimes shortened to nuhą.

thrice – danyihą (DAH-nyee-hahⁿ)

four times – dowehą (DOH-way-hahⁿ)
Sometimes shortened to dohą.

five times – thatąhą (THAH-tahⁿ-hahⁿ)

ten times – grebrąhą (GRAY-brahⁿ-hahⁿ)

twenty times – grebrą nuwehą (GRAY-brahⁿ NOO-way-hahⁿ)

 

Times in a Row (two times in a row, three times in a row, four times in a row, etc.)

To express “in a row” or “in succession”, use the above suffix -hą (hahⁿ) at the end of a number and then add kigre (KEE-gray) after that.

 

two times in a row – nuwehą kigre (NOO-way-hahⁿ KEE-gray
Sometimes shortened to nuhą kigre.

three times in a row – danyihą kigre (DAH-nyee-hahⁿ KEE-gray)

four times in a row – dowehą kigre (DOH-way-hahⁿ KEE-gray)
Sometimes shortened to dohą kigre.

eight times in a row – grerabrįhą kigre (gray-RAH-breeⁿ-hahⁿ KEE-gray)

 

Fold (onefold, twofold, threefold, etc.)

To express onefold, twofold, threefold, etc., add -kihą (KEE-hahⁿ) to the end of the number.  These terms are also used for the English double, triple, quadruple, etc.

 

onefold – iyąnkikihą (ee-YAHⁿNG-kee-KEE-hahⁿ)

twofold – nuwekihą (NOO-way-KEE-hahⁿ)

sixfold – sagwekihą (SAH-gway-KEE-hahⁿ)

fiftyfold – grebrą thatąkihą (GRAY-brahⁿ THAH-tahⁿ-KEE-hahⁿ)

 

At a Time (one at a time, two at a time, three at a time, etc.)

 To express one at a time, two at a time, three at a time, etc., add -na (nah) to the end of the number.

 

one at a time – iyąnkina (ee-YAHⁿNG-kee-nah)

two at a time – nuwena (NOO-way-nah)

three at a time – danyina (DAH-nyee-nah)

thirteen at a time – grebrą agrį danyina (GRAY-brahⁿ ah-GREEⁿ DAH-nyee-nah)

 

To Each (one to each, two to each, three to each, etc.)

This group covers a situation where something is to be divided among different people.  For example, “Give two to each person here.”  To do this, add -nana (NAH-nah) to the end of a number.

 

one to each – iyąnkinana (ee-YAHⁿNG-kee-NAH-nah)

two to each – nuwenana (NOO-way-NAH-nah)

four to each – dowenana (DOH-way-NAH-nah)

thirty to each – grebrą danyinana (GRAY-brahⁿ DAH-nyee-NAH-nah)

 

In Each Place (one in each place, two in each place, three in each place, etc.)

This group covers a situation where something is to be divided and a certain amount put in each place.  For example, “Put five chairs in each room.”  To do this, add wamąhą (wah-MAHⁿ-hahⁿ) after a number.  (Sometimes wamąhą is rendered wahma (wah-HMAH)).

 

one in each place – iyąnki wamąhą (ee-YAHⁿNG-kee wah-MAHⁿ-hahⁿ)

two in each place – nuwe wamąhą (NOO-way wah-MAHⁿ-hahⁿ)
Sometimes rendered nuhą wamąhą or nuwamąhą.

four in each place – dowe wamąhą (DOH-way wah-MAHⁿ-hahⁿ)
Sometimes rendered dohą wamąhą or dowamąhą.

nine in each place – sanke wamąhą (SAHNG-kay wah-MAHⁿ-hahⁿ)

twenty-three in each place – grebrą nuwe agrį danyi wamąhą (GRAY-brahⁿ NOO-way ah-GREEⁿ DAH-nyee wah-MAHⁿ-hahⁿ)