Articles in Otoe-Missouria work much in the same way as they do in English, though there is often more meaning attached to the terms.  In English, the articles are a, an, and the.  Their corresponding translations in Otoe-Missouria are:


a/an – iyą (this term is short for iyąnki which is the word for “one”)


The idea of “the” as expressed in Otoe-Missouria depends on the situation and/or subject matter.  The main terms used for “the” are derived from position “to be” verbs.  In English, “to be” is simply rendered as am, is, are, etc., but in Otoe-Missouria, the position of the subject is also given (lying, sitting, standing, or moving around).  These verbs are hąnge, nąnge, dąhe, and nąhe, respectively.


the – hąnga, nanga, dąha, or nąha


The ending letter “e” in the above verbs changes to an “a” when used as “the”.  What you are talking about will determine which “the” will be used.  As in English, these terms are used to specify something.


I want a book. – Wawagaxe iyą hagųnda ke/ki.

I want the book. – Wawagaxe nąnga hagųnda ke/ki.


The terms hąnga, nąnga, dąha, and nąha carry more meaning than simply “the”.  See the dictionary for more information.